- i. Theoretical ideals and Religious precepts.
ii. Customs and Traditions.
iii. National Character.
iv. Fine Arts and Literature.
v. The Sindh's history can be traced from archaeological findings, which consists of 5000 years' period.
vi Language and Literature.
vii. Code of Life.
- Dravadian civilization 2000 years.
- Aryan civilization two thousand years and
- Mixed civilization for 1500 yeas.
- Those persons living in thick forests, mountains and planes depended mostly upon their cattle. Meat and milk were supplied to dwellers of those are as and certain other things were purchased from the town for their social needs. The people who lived in the forest, had to protect themselves from elephants, monkeys, wolves, bears, horses, hippopotamus etc. either by taming them or fighting against them. Because of the heavy monsoon rains, thick forests grew; which provided wood for baking bricks and plenty of water for agricultural lands. The Dravadian, who were driven out by Aryans, Goons and Bheels migrated to Maharashtra side. From Sindh, several things have been found which originally were the products of Central Asia, Central India, Maharashtra, Rajistan, Persia and Afghanistan, which provides trade links with these countries. Some ancient remnants of Dravadian dwellings have been found in Baluchistan and some parts of Sindh. Brauhi language contains several words of Dravadian language. These persons who remained in forests and planes had little contact with towns and Cities and mostly remained in scattered huts and passed nomadic life. Waderas, Mukhies, Sardars and Ratibals (the notables) were their leaders and they passed the tribal life. Even up to this day several persons pass nomadic life which they have inherited from their ancestors. That life was in contrast to city life. Those tribes used to fight among themselves on petty issues and mutual fear was the dominant factor, and because of which they used to worship animals, trees, jins, dewas and dead spirits to evade calamities. The traces of their customs continue upto this time in the far-off places. The practice of hoisting of flags on various trees and pleasing the spirits driving away the evils spirits through music and various other methods continues even upto this day.
- Second category of persons used to stay near lakes, rivers and sea. Fishing was their main occupation and source of livelihood. Various kinds of nets and other methods of fish catching were used. Some used to remain in small boats and some on the banks of sea, lakes and rivers in scattered huts. They used to migrate from place to place in search of their livelihood. Present Hyderabad Sindh was in those days nearer to sea. Sea used to be right upto Thar, where present sand dunes show the signs of recession of sea.
- Third kind of people used to remain on the banks of river and seashore. Many of them had their small boats and ships through which they carried on trade with other countries. Some historians say that before Christ these people used to go through Persian Gulf, Arabian sea and went right upto Egypt through Red Sea. Sonic of the old words are used for boats just like Lagu, Makri and Khuha etc. That Systems continued for about 2000 years.
This period can be counted from fifth century AD upto this time. In which the Persians, Arabs, Pathans, Moguls, Europeans, especially Britons and present Muhajirs and Punjabi domination can be counted. This period has remained for 1500 years. According to the law of evolution and fall of various civilizations Dravadian and Aryan civilization had reached the downfall on account of various invasions, domination and influences of outsiders. Sindhi culture has lost its original separate existence, specialty and identity. Now it has mixture of various cultures. At present, Sindhi civilization is facing the onslaught of foreign influences. There is a war going on between original and new influences. In the majority of Sindhis its original civilization is under threat of losing its hold. The common man is becoming indifferent and self-effacing qualities of national feelings, valiant and noble past traditions, laudable sacrifices and self-assertion are loosening their hold. We have reached the stage where either we have to become strong and change the circumstances in our favor or give up the traditions and influences of the past. If you study the history of past 1500 years you will find that how the Iranians came, dominated and exploited the Sindhis and Sindhis slowly lost the power of defending themselves. But their language, religious beliefs and civilization, in spite of outside influences remained intact. Afterwards Arabs conquered the country and brought changes which l have narrated in the previous chapter. At present there is no Arab rule but the previous Arabian influence has created inferiority complex. The lacs of Sindhi people still consider themselves belonging to Arabian origin and take pride in it. Instead of calling themselves the descendants of Aryans, they proudly consider themselves to be descendants of nomad Arabs. They say the prayers in Arabic language of which they do not understand any thing. Despite Shah Latif, Sachal Sarmast and Sami's best teachings they continue to stick to Arabic language. And lacs of Sindhi people every year after spending crores of rupees go to Saudi Arabia for their salvation through Hajj and visiting many places for their salvation. That thing is remnant of Arabian imperialism, which they invented to divert their attention towards Arabian things instead of Sindhi traditions. At present Sindhis have adopted the script of Persio-Arabic language. Many of them have forgotten their saint’s traditions that advocated love, non-violence and belief in the theory of unity behind diversity. They follow the Arabic prejudices and violence and Arab Laws as if these things were real Islam. There are several persons in Sindh who believe, if they die in the Arabian country they will directly go to heaven, though they know that the dead bodies are thrown away in caves. They consider the water of Arab Wells purer than the water of Indus river and they consider the dust of Arabia pure and place it before their head while praying. Though Sindhis have driven-away Arabs from Sindh but their influence has not yet vanished. After the fall of Arab imperialism, invasions from Afghanistan started immediately. Mahmood Ghazanvi's attack can be considered the first attack from the West during the rule of Sammas followed by the invasions from Delhi. During the days of Allaudin, Sindhis got setback and after the Arghuns and Turkhans conquered Sindh. During that period the Persian Language became the State language. People used to wear big shalwars, coats, turbans and several persons traced their pedigree to the Pathan descendants. Several persons started to please the outside Moghul power, took part in the martyrdom of Shah Inayat Sufi. His so-called sin was that he supported the old religion's toleration and believed in Tusawuf (Mysticism). The several Waderas supported Mughal Governor against him. Mughal period continued in Sind for 200 years. During that period the Persian became the official language. And on account of that Sarhandi Pir's fanatics and religious bigotry became prelude. Moulvi Hashim Thatvi wrote a religious mandate, which can be read in my book named "Pegham-e-Latif". During the days of Mughal period what had happened in Sindh can be read from the book "Mazhar-e-Shahjahani" edited by Pir Husamuddin Rashdi and also from the book of "Tareekhe-Masoomi" written by Syed Masoom Shah Masoomi. After that Nadir Shah and Madad Khan Pathan invaded Sindh and did great harm to the settled life of Sindhis during the days of Kalhoras and Mirs, Sindhi again in spite of outside invasion started towards reconstruction and improvement. Soon after that the British occupied Sindh and on account of their administrative convenience they attached Sindh to Bombay Presidency, as a division under a Commissioner.
- They, for their administrative convenience, attached Sindh with Bombay Presidency. Their convenience apart, this measure increased the grievance of Sindhis and multiplied their problems. Sindhis started a movement to raise their voice against the continuous merger of their land. The British government responded positively and rectified their mistake and separated Sindh and gave it the Provincial status.
- They systematized Sindhi script and language and
- They recognized the status of Sindhi being the official and Court language, right upto the Chief Court and made it compulsory for every foreign official, who was appointed in Sindh services, to learn Sindhi language within six months time, failing which their promotions were stopped or even faced removal from government service.
- They constructed the railway lines, introduced air services and made the communications very comfortable and safe.
- They started Primary Schools, high Schools and Colleges in the whole country
- They established peace, rule of law and left the traditions of modern democratic government and gave the country new laws and codes.
- They constructed canals, barrages and made facilities for irrigation.
- They introduced the country to the western civilization, science and thinking.
Sindh since last 5000 years has remained a separate country with typical characteristics of its own. Many tributaries of Dravadian and Aryan culture and civilization have strengthened its language, literature, culture and civilization, its folklore and music, history and heroes.
Present Sindhi Language seems to be Prakirt of Indo-Aryan language, in which much words and phrases from Dravadian, Persian, Arabic, and Mangol languages have been added and adopted. This language's present script is Indo-Arabic script. It is a fact that Aryans came from the north-west in this country. Their language was called Indo-Aryan language. At present the Sub-Continent of India is divided in the two main languages. One part of it speaks Dravadian language like Telegue, Malayalm, Tamil etc. that are spoken in Southern India. The second part speaks Indo-Aryan language like Bengali, Gujrati, Marhati, Hindi, Punjabi, Kashmiri languages.
In the past Chapter I have narrated that Sindh's citizenship, planning, construction and drainage system were advanced to such an extent that no other country in the world can give a parallel example. Moen-Jo-Daro city is entirely built with baked bricks and its streets and roads were constructed according to plan. Every house had well and bathrooms. For the sewerage water there was planned tiled drainage system, which led to the big drains till such waste was put away from the city. In the middle of city there was big swimming pool and separate bath rooms, which had got stairs for going down to the pool. It appears that a big swimming pool was constructed as a common bath. In it, there was arrangement of water coming from outside and used water to be drained to other side. Walls of houses were strong and wide, which have remained there even after the passage of 5000 years. In the city there are traces of a big hall with pillars, which might have been used for public gathering or some prayer house or city hall. The streets were constructed with baked bricks and there were brick houses constructed like godowns. Beside the swimming pool, there were places for sitting and while bathing, for keeping clothes and other articles. In the town there was a big market and it was used as a center for merchandise, of town. On account of planned construction, great expenditure must have been incurred which depicts skill and prosperity. For baking the bricks there must have been many kilns. It seems the construction at that age had reached the great progress . From excavations, the stamps, the statues of men and utensils made of clay and the toys, bullock-carts made of clay show that this art-also had reached great progress. After that, in the days of Buddhism, the Stupas of Buddha are seen and nearby them, there were buildings or dwellings of Bikshus. In terms of time, earlier than the Moen-Jo-Daro, some places a found in Sindh, which are also mostly constructed in baked bricks. When the greater part of world used to pass nomadic life, here in Sindh irrigation and trade reached at a stage which made the country rich and prosperous. The city life had progressed much. That period was 3500 to I500 B.C. which can be called Dravadian civilization and citizenship period. Between 2000 years and 1500 B.C. some different tribes of Aryans immigrated on this side, where they conquered towns and villages of Sindh and settled. Somehow the climate change brought changes in the Monsoon season also. The big forests were reduced and buildings with pacca brick houses had changed into mud brick houses. Some remains of such towns are still seen upto this time. For instance Alor, Birhamanabad, CHANHOON-JO-DARO, Thukarjo-Daro, Bhambhore and some Buddhist Stupas have been found. All these excavations were carried out during the British period. After the establishment of Pakistan Government there has not been any substantial excavation so nothing of substance has been added to excavation and archives. One doesn't know, that during the Moen-Jo-Daro period the system was in the hands of Panchayats or some sort of Syndicates. I think the system of Rajas (Monarchy) had not started as yet, because use no buildings like palaces have been found. It is possible that (luring the Arian days the citizens might have Panchayats or Raja system of Government. It is possible in the small villages and the scattered huts and hamlets that the people might have remained under the influence of Sardars, Ratibals, Waderas etc. Soon after that Rajas might have started ruling whom through Waderas and Sardars may have started administering the country. During these days the training of elephants for the purpose of war or travelling might have been vogue, horses might have been used for riding or pulling carts. During the Maha Bharat war, it seems Raja Jaidarith went to the support of Korwas. But it cannot be found out from which side of Sindh he came. It is generally said that the period of Maha Bharat war was about 1000 years B.C.
iii) The freedom of other nations and persons is denied and in the name of Khilafat, the Arab imperialism is established and in Pakistan Punjabis call themselves the custodians of Islam.
iv) The ideas that Arabia, its people, water and dust are pious and to die in Arab country will mean salvation is circulated with zeal and enthusiasm. To the center of Arab imperialism the performance of Hajj, where the old Arab customs are performed is considered a duty.
v) In the name of religion the conquering nation is entitled to subjugate the vanquished nationalities.
iii) Communism for the achievement of its object believed to use all sorts of tactics because it believes in the policy of end justifies the means, according to which concepts of good and the bad, right and wrong, lose their meaning.
iv) Communism prefers its theories to nations or individuals. They consider class struggle more useful for their purpose than the nations and individuals. Communism gives national freedom secondary consideration. Communism, believing in class struggle, indirectly works against the common national interest.
v) Communism is based on international theory and does not give any importance to national interests. Therefore national interests take secondary consideration.
iv) Shudars or untouchables.
ii) Dedicate and if necessary lay down one's life for the motherland and protect its frontiers and the flag.
iii) Protect the weak, respect for women folk and give security to foreigners and strangers (unfortunately this quality of theirs has put Sindhis to a lot of trouble and turbulence).
b) During the days of Khilji Empire when Delhi ruler invaded Sindh, Dodo Soomro fought against the foreign invader till last. He preferred to die for Sindh rather than to accept humiliating conditions of Delhi rulers. This is yet another glorious example of the supreme sacrifice in the cause of Sindh.
c) After the demise of Jam Nizamuddin Sammo his son Jam Feroze became the ruler. He indulged in luxuries and worldly pleasure and did not pay attention to his duties as ruler. He committed a suicidal mistake of recruiting alien Pathans as his guards who in tact were the spies of Shah Baig-Arghoon, who had earlier deputed his brother Sultan Mohammed Mirza to attack Sindh. But Jam Nizamuddin’s able Commander Dulah Darya Khan, near Sibbi defeated Mirza. Subsequently during the days of Jam Feroze on account of his misdeeds Dulah Darya Khan left his service and spent a life of seclusion in his village near Talti. Finding this, an opportune time for the invasion pathan agents sent word to Shah Baig Arghoon, telling him that Jam Feroze was weak and coward, and Dulah Darya Khan had left, hence this was the good opportunity to invade Sind. Shah Baig Arghoon invaded Sindh and Jam Feroze was unable to face them and left his capital Thatta and fled to Pir Patho and left his subjects in the lurch. Jam Feroze realizing his mistake, sent a word to Dulah Darya Khan to fight the foreign invaders. Though it was too late but yet this old Commander could not refuse the call for the cause and immediately rushed to the capital and died fighting against foreign invaders.
d) Forth instance is that near Talti, Rana Rinmal Singh Sodho, Dulah Darya Khan's son Mohammed Khan and Makhdoom Bilawal's followers jointly faced the Arghoons and died in the battlefield.
e) During the days of Jam Nizamuddin Sammo one Syed Miran Mohammed Jaunpuri started calling himself Mehdi and agitated the Muslims to jointly prepare for the spread of Islam, so that there should be rule of Muslims in greater part of the world. Jam Nizamuddin and his Prime Minister considered this move to be a conspiracy against the unity of Sindhis. Dulah Darya Khan along with his friends Hyder Shah Sanai and Makhdoom Bilawal countered this move successfully by driving away Syed Miran Mohammed Jaunpuri from Sindh. It was due to this fact that after the conquest of Sindh during the days of Shah Hassan Arghoon son of Shah Baig Arghoon, after getting edict from servile Mullahs, got Makhdoom Bilawal murdered through Ghana, (oil Spinner). Thus Makhdoom Bilawal preferred martyr in to surrender.
f) Shah Inayat Sufi of Jhook was believer in Monism (Wahdat-ul-Wajood) and he believed in the unity of Hindus and Muslims. And the followers of Fanatic Mullahs, who were the followers of Sarhandi Pirs, insisted upon division between Hindus and Muslims on religious basis. Delhi's Governor on the instigation of local Zamindars, Sardars and Pirs sent army against Shah Inayat Sufi, who did not surrender. The Mughal Governor sent for Shah Inayat Sufi for negotiations giving him solemn assurance of his safety. The Governor took oath on the Holy Qura’an, a traditional test of trust, to reassure him of his safety. Though the Shah knew it was only a tactics and there was a conspiracy to kill him. But he preferred to go to Thatta because he did not want any more bloodshed of his companions and followers. The outcome was a foregone conclusion. Shah Inayat was treacherously murdered. The role of Mullahs always at the beck and call of the ruler played their dirty role in the murder of this great progressive patriot. Said Shah Inayat before his death:
III) TO SEE THE "BELOVED" EVERYWHERE
b) Sacrifices of animals and human beings at the altar of goddess of Durga.
e) Phallic worship of symbol of generation and power, in the rites and ceremonies of their primitive people.
d) Swastika, an additional arm of fighting.
ii) Sindhis did not accept the domination of Pathans for long and got rid of them.
iii) Sindhis remained for some time under the Mughal domination but soon got freedom.
iv) British imperialism made Sindh as part of Bombay Presidency. But Sindhis got Sindh separated from Bombay.
v) Alter the Britons quit Sindh was placed under the domination of Muhajir-Punjabi neo-colonial domination, who in order to erase the name of Sindh, established one-unit and abolished the province of Sindh. But Sindh's unceasing struggle resulted in dismemberment of One-Unit and Sindh once again got its original Provincial Status.
vi) At present Sindh being only a Province of Pakistan has been denied its historical national existence and has been assigned the status of a minority. In Pakistan Sindh is being treated as a Mitch cow. But Sindh's new generation has become aware of the innumerable atrocities committed against them and ruthless exploitation of participants in the celebration, centenary of Jinnah or Iqbal. On the contrary, events or occasions like these remind it of injustice done to it and non-performance of the promise made to their elders. The new generation traces all shades and shapes of injustice done to Sind and its people during the past forty old years by the Punjab-Muhajir combine. In their view the main culprits of the crime; committed against Sindh are Iqbal, Jinnah and Liaquat.
- I. Music
2. The Instruments of Music
5. Good Dress
6 Good Food
10. Painting and Carving.
- 3. DRAMA
- 6. GOOD FOOD
b) Every house prepares food separately, resulting in much wastage. If in future, some common place is utilized for preparing food, there will be saving in food and time and preparation on scientific methods will be more beneficial.
c) If food is prepared in central places, under the advice of doctors and health visitors there is possibility that the food will be easily digested and health giving It will be more cheap. Most of the stomach, which occur from such food will be reduced and women-folk who give more time to cooking will be free to work with men for common purposes.
- 11. SOCIAL CUSTOMS
b) Tribal gatherings and religious fairs.
c) Purely individual way of greetings, exchange of pleasantries and formalities.
d) Various items of entertainment for people at the time of annual fairs and main events.
ii) We do not believe in the existence of Pakistan, Pakistan Nation and Muslim Nation. We consider continuation of Pakistan as a black warrant for Sindhis. It is therefore our fervent desire and duty to see its early end.
iii) We intend to establish Secular State in Sindh and avarice to Islamic Shariat, Nizam-e-Mustafa, and Islamic Rule. Communist way of life or Capitalist sys[em of life.
iv) We love humanity and unity of religions of the world is a part of our belief. We have our own culture and international mission of love and peace. Any body who does not believe it is a foe.
ii) The Zorastarians used to dig deep wells and used to tie the dead bodies with iron bars. The birds ate the flesh of dead bodies and bones fell in the wells.
iii) The Arians used to burn the dead bodies which custom was adopted by Hindus, Buddhs and Jams. In Moen-Jo-Daro the dead bodies, half burnt bodies have been found. The Europeans of late have started burning the dead bodies. The remains are put in some bottles and buried in wells or underground. But Hindus and Muslims have continued their respective customs of burning and burying. Both Hindus and Muslims serve free food to those who come to console the heirs and relatives after the third day of the death of that person. Seventh, eleventh, twenty first days are fixed for food distribution. The idea behind the gesture of charity is to salve the soul of the dead. Though there is a common belief that after death the spirits of bodies return to Trinity, yet many go to the soulless samadhis and graves and recite from the scripture for the salvation of the departed souls. RELIGIOUS AND NATIONAL FESTIVALS
e) Right of Nation's self determination.
2) hatred and division.
3) To have domination over others through violence and brute force.
4) The existence of poverty and un-employment.
iii) Between good and evil, right and wrong.
iv) Between liberty of individuals and independence of nation on one side and denial of these through force or fraud.
v) Between love and hatred.
c) When present preachers of the doctrines of Fascism, communism and Imperialism propagating the supremacy of their theories create war neurosis.
- I) SUSPICION AGAINST ONE AN OTHER
b) They have not taken sufficient care to create understanding.
c) Divisions on the basis of inferiority on superiority complex.
b) They have put restrictions on the basic principles of human rights.
c) They have passed the black laws and ordinances and restricted the human rights.
d) They have tried to enact such constitutions where in the smaller nations existence has been denied, and the Government has become the main instrument in the hands of Punjabi majority for the vested interests of Punjab.
e) They have increased the expenditure on Army, which is dominated by Punjabis and at the cost of other smaller nationalities which arc kept in slavery. In view of the dangers prevailing in the countries of world, America and other capitalist countries are afraid of communist countries in the same manner are afraid of capitalist countries and smaller nations are afraid of bigger nations. But our Saints had seen beyond the darkness, some ray of light. Sachal Fakir expresses his hope and optimism in these words:
- Sindh & Sindhi Culture by Thakur.
- Sindhi Culture by G.M. Syed.
- Sindh Valley's Civilization by Mohd. Idris Siddiqui.
- Encyclopedia of social Sciences and Articles by different persons.
- Tarikh-e-Tamadun by Sir Thamus Bekle.
- Tarikh-e-Tamadun Sindh by Moulai Shidai.
- Story of Civilization 6 Volumes. Will Durant.
- Our cultural heritage by Humayoun Kabir.
- Shah Sachal and Sami (a study) by Mohd. Ibrahim Joyo.
- The survey of Indian Languages by Garrison.