Earlier I have mentioned in the second chapter that there existed three different ideas about nationalism in Sindh during the period of Shah Latif. They were the following:
2. A united nationality of India, and the idea of its independence and progress.
3. A separate nationality of Muslims, and the idea of their domination and progress.
It was due to these reasons that he could not accept the idea of a separate nationality of the Muslims, which was based on the philosophy of deism. He says:
These tragedies only served to prove an impediment in the propagation of Islam. The prejudiced and narrow-minded attitude of Mullahs (priests) only confined Islam, a religion befitting human nature, to merely beliefs, forms of worship, customs and a social attitude. When Shah Latif observed that the adulterers, drunkards, oppressors, usurpers and the unscrupulous exploiters of the needy and the destitute, and the men leading a life of Luxury had become the representatives of a nation, who claimed to serve as a pattern to be followed by the world, he found it absolutely impossible to accept this situation and was constrained to say.
Although this problem originated the philosophy of pantheism and harmonized with Shah Latif’s school of mysticism as well, but Shah Latif’s far sightlessness had perceived that in the vast subcontinent of India lived the people with different faiths, social standards, languages, races and cultures, and uniting it into one nation through an artificial plan and program was a principle which appeared to be very good and attractive, but practically for a long time to come it was impossible for it to be fruitful. It was on this account that rather than an Indian united nationality he found it much easier and more practicable to espoused the idea of Sindhi nationality. He found himself still more firmly convinced of his view due to the facts stated below:
A. Due to the unbiased influence of Buddhism since the ancient times, the teachings of Guru Nanak, the preaching of Hindu saints and pious men and the non-sectarian and tolerant teaching of Muslim mystics, the Hindus living in Sindh were free from religious fundamentalism and narrow-mindedness as compared to the Hindus living in other provinces and were closer to the Muslims in their way of life.
B. The Muslims were influenced by the mystics, the fundamental principle of whose teachings was love. Moreover on the one hand having no contact with the fanatic and narrow-minded Hindus, being the majority, and on the other hand having ruled for a long period of time they were unbiased and were firm advocates of religious tolerance.
C. A small country, one language, common traditions, abundance of food, people generous and patriotic, loving, dignified and courteous: these were the virtues which were most suitable for making the people a nation without discrimination of religion and faith.
It appears that before arriving at these conclusions Shah Latif had conducted a close and deep analysis of the conditions after travelling through most of the regions of Sindh. He observed that especially the people of two different races lived in Sindh: one the Aryan race and the other Smat (Semitic race), and he found some distinguishing characteristics in these two races. He considered Baluchis as Aryans, and Samoos, Soomras and other native people belonging to the Smat (the Semitic race). Some of the tribes Shah Latif has especially mentioned in his poetry are the following:
Baluch: Sometime they have been called by the names of Aryans, Keechi, Jut and sometime Areecha. These people had migrated from Makran, Kalat, Muzaffar Garh and Dera Ghazi Khan.
Smat: This word is a combination of Samma and Soomro. The tribes of Abro, Dasro, Jareja, Lakha Rahoo, Unar, and Jakhra are the offshoots of this tribe. They were the natives of central Sindh, Kachh and Kathiawar.
The Common People: Shah Latif called these people by the names of Maroo, Sanghaar, Warehja Panhwar, Vanjara (nomads) Mallah (Batmen), Mangta (beggars), Bhaan (Jugglers) Sodha, Dhai, Rebara, Kachhi, Odh, Mahana and Mehar.
Shah Latif had developed a special attachment with the Baluchi tribe. He had closely observed their virtues of courage, determination adherence to their pledge and the qualities of leadership. They were completely fed up with the arrogant and fascist government of Kalhora and their hypocritical policies. So he was beginning to see the signs of a change in Sindh through the Baluchis and was determined to develop self-confidence in them and give them encouragement. All the fine tunes of the poetry of Shah Latif are replete with the praise of the tales and characters of Baluchis. Some of the lines of his verse have become proverbial in the praise of the Baluchis:
Shah Latif has highlighted this theme in detail in "Sur Maivi". In this, he has used the metaphor of Maroo describing the people of Sindh. He has compared the rule of foreigners with the prison of Umer Kot, has called the ruling class by the name of Umer Soomro, and has compared the independence of the people with the life of picking desert flowers in Malir. In the same manner he has called the true representatives of the Sindhi people and the patriotic members of society who understand the real value and worth of freedom, and really have a sympathy for the backward people, by the name of Marvi. Shah Latif had a good reason for his conviction that Sindhis, despite their being the victims of backwardness, are superior to other nations of the world. He possessed a complete knowledge and consciousness of economic backwardness, but rather than considering it as a fault; he describes it as a reality of their situation. He says: