A TOPOLOGICAL SURVEYAs regards the physical geography of that period, complete and authentic information could not be obtained so far, except for the assumptions of geologists. So, one has to per force depend on folklore, sayings and anecdotes coming down, generation after generation, to us as glimpses of ancient Sindh. Almost every geologist has agreed that on this planet, the above mentioned two major physical alternations did occur, which made ALTANTA disappear and the Atlantic Ocean take its place. However, as regards the period or time expanse, opinions differ. It was during that ancient period while some parts of Sindh remained above that the others were submerged. In proof of this, a geologist produced a few ancient maps, but their outlines bore extremely faint tracings and ancient symbols. So it cannot be stated with surety whether in those days the area did have a population. Nevertheless, it is evident that during that ancient period there did flow two rivers; one was called "SINDHU" elsewhere, in the same region it was also called "MEHRAN". Its other name was "SIRSUTY", and it was also called "HAKRO". For some passage of time, it flowed and mingled with the water of the JAMNA River.
The ancient history of Sindhu Desh can be traced from the ruins of AMRI, KOT DlJI, MOHAN-JO-DARO, Kaho-Jo-Daro, KHANKER, JHANGARA and CHANIHOON-JO-DARO and some lesser-known areas. Some of these habitations of ancient civilization are said to be 5,000 years old. The discoveries of AMRI are said to be 3,000 years B.C., KOT DIJI is of about 2,500 B.C., MOHAN-JO-DARO is of about 2,300 B.C. From all these archaeological findings it is evident that since then Sindhu Desh had achieved a civilization worthy of a civilized citizenry. It is; therefore, of no surprise that archaeologists are of the opinion that the civilizations of Egypt, Summaria, Usseria and Babylon were somewhat of an earlier period than that of MOHAN-JO-DARO, yet for a short span it also remained their contemporary civilization.
(i) Zurdusste (iii) Mathraism (ii) Mazdahic (iv) Mani
- It is totally wrong to say that the earliest conquest of Banu-Ummayya was made for the sake of spreading Islam. It is well known that Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his progeny) with his mission of peace removed the tribal enmity and differences and brought them on one platform as the Arab nation. It is a known fact that "Banu Ummayya" in the days of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his progeny) were fierce opponents of the Prophet of Islam. As they thought that by the social ideas of Islam, they would be losing their hold over Mecca, so they created difficulties and forced the Prophet and his supporters to migrate to Madina. They also then fought against the Prophet and his supporters in Madina, but after the conquest of Mecca, they were forced by circumstances to join the Prophet and the opportunists became his followers. But after the Prophet's demise, and especially during the day of Usman, they refused to follow Ali (Alahisalam), cousin of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his progeny), and rebelled against Ali. Subsequently they got him killed and refused to share any power with Banu Hashim who were the relatives of the Prophet of Islam.
- As regards the second reason: the presents sent from Ceylon. The story of robbing the presents sent to the Arab rulers also seems to be absolutely baseless. How Raja Dahir could be held responsible for the dacoities committed by Medeans. It- is only a myth, which is fabricated to defame Raja Dahir who was a Sindhi.
- The reason for the conquest of Sindh by Ummayyad Imperialism was Raja Dahir's refusal to return Muhammad Bin Allafi, who had taken asylum under Raja Dahir's government. As it was against the social rule of the Sindhis in those days, to return the parsons who had placed themselves under their protection from their enemies. Raja Dahir's tolerance and liberal minded-ness was a well known fact, or account of which people of various religions lived peacefully in Sindh, where Hindus had their temples and Parsis had their fire temples, Buddhists had their pagodas, Muslims had their mosques. The Muslims had settled in Sindh on account of the policy of the Arab rulers. These rulers had difference with the relations of the Prophet, and being intolerant, wanted to kill them. How could this God-fearing ruler return these sheltered people to the cruel and tyrant Arab rulers? It is said that Imam Hussain (Alahisalam), after being harassed by Yazeed and his followers, wanted to come to Sindhi on the invitation of Raja Dahir. But instead of being given permission to go to Sindhi, he was martyred at Karbala. The fact is that the Arab Imperialism started during the days of Umer, who had started conquering other countries. This was the fifteenth invasion of Sindh. How in the days of Waleed Bin Abdul Malik, the Arabs succeeded. It will be proper if I elaborate on the fourteenth invasion of Sindh, since the days of Caliph Umer.
This expedition took place in the days of Umer by Usman Bin Abbass Sukfi who was in charge of Bahrain and Oman territories. His invasion was by the sea route. His boats went to Thana City, near the vicinity of Bombay. From there he returned with a lot of loot, called Mal-e-ghaneemat (booty). From this booty lie gave a portion to Umer, who, after receiving his share, advised Usman not to invade through the sea route which was unsafe, as he had himself sent a fleet towards the Roman area, but which, on account of a tempest, was destroyed. After that he had decided not to send invaders through sea, as it was full of danger. 
Caliph Umer was a strong and harsh ruler. It was difficult to disobey his orders. But by to many Arab Ameers and their followers temptation to loot had now become very strong with the result that the same Usman Bin Asi, along with his brother "Mugira", again took a fleet of ships, under the leadership of Commander "Mugira", and sailed towards Sindh's Port of "Debal". He reached "Bharoch". In that invasion Mugira was killed. These invasions took place during the fifteenth Hijjri, (Muslim Calendar) in the days of Umer. In the 21st Hijjri, his armies succeeded in invasions conquering "Hamdan", "Nihavund" and "Khurasan". From these conquests the Arabs got a lot of wealth besides an army of male and female slaves. Three other places, Seestan (now Sehwan), Kirman, Makran were still within the territories of the Persian Empire. These were also conquered by tile Arabs and a huge amount of money was taken away. But that time, the people of the neighboring countries had come to know that the main purpose of Arabs' attacks was to acquire riches. During the Arab invasions, the local people used to hurriedly escape either to mountains or to other villages, leaving their houses in fear of the Arab looters.
Abdul Rahman Bin Sumrah, after conquering Zuringe, proceeded towards the hills between Zuringe and Kesh. He took possession of the part of Sindh, which is now Baluchistan. In those days, there was no separate country like Baluchistan. Makran and Seestan were on the border of Sindh.
When Arabs murdered the third Khalifa, Usman, in his house, then Hazrat Ah (Alahisalam) was elected the Arab ruler in his place in 35th Hijjri. The expedition started before his rule towards Sindh. "Tugir Bin Saghir along with "Hans Bin Marih Adi" in 38th Hijjri, these persons were attacked by hilly tract people. They returned after conquering them. 
After the fifth expedition, Haris Bin Marih Adi continued his expedition towards Sindh. He received information of the martyrdom of Hazrat Ah. Yet he continued his expedition In Arabia, in place of Hazrat Ah, Amir Muavia came in possession of the rule. (Fatoohul Buldan).
Amir Muavia immediately sent Abdul Bin Amir and Rashid Bin Umer towards Sindh, who after getting a lot of loot from that side, came and gave a share of the loot to Muavia, the ruler of Syria.
In 42nd Hijjri, Amir Muavia sent Abdul Bin and Abdullah Bin Sawar on an expedition of Sindh. They brought back several horses from the side of Keekan and other booty from Sindh, on which Muavia was very glad.
Abdullah Bin Amir remained in Damascus and returned to the side of Keekan, during this expedition. He contacted the Turks. The Turkish troops were also on an expedition of looting. He and his people were killed and getting this information Muavia sent Abdullah Bin Sawar with four thousand cavalry along with same route and ordered them to bring well known horses of Keekan on their return. 
In 44th Hijjri, Muhab Bin Abisafra, a known Commander of Abdul Rahman Bin Sumra's troop, was sent towards Sindh. Instead of going on direct route, he changed his route via mountains and fought with local people near Kandabeel and, after getting sufficient loot, he went back.
This expedition was also towards Kandabeel, though Sindh's route was different. Abdullah Bin Sawar got killed in this battle. Seestan's ruler sent Zaid Bin Abu Sufyan, Sinan Bin Muslim and Muhibuk Hezli towards Sindh. They looted the Makran area and occupied it. The robbers sent a portion of the loot to Amir Muavia.
After that, Zaid sent troops towards Sindh under the command of Rashid Bin Umer "Juwary Azdi", who attacked Keekan and kept on sending the looted cash from that country along with looted property, throughout the year. When Rashid was returning from "Munder" and "Bah Raj" hills; he met the people of the Maid tribe who arrested him. Then Sinan Bin Muslim was appointed in his place. He was killed in fighting with the people of the Maidtribe. 
After the death of Sinan Bin Muslim, Manzar Bin Jarood was appointed the ruler of Makran. He too marched towards Sindh, but on hearing the news of rebellion behind, he returned and stayed at Khuzdar and died there. After Manzar Bin Jarood, Ubedullah Bin Ziyad (who at the time was appointed ruler of Basra in place of his father) appointed Haris Bin Basar in his place, but he died at Tooran. In his place Hakam was appointed as his successor.
After Hakam, Ibn-e-Ziad sent Sardar Bin Han to the frontiers of Sindh. He fought many battles against the Sindhis. From the above mentioned facts the readers will know the Arab expeditions toward Sindh were not for the cause of spreading Islam or getting gifts looted by pirates or for returning Muhammad Bin Alafi, who on account of tyranny of Hajjaj Bin Yousif, had taken asylum with Raja Dahir. Instead, all these expeditions were part of the Arabs thirst for conquering the rich countries in the name of religion, and thereby establishing Arab Imperialism, which was initiated by Amir Umer
- After the conquest of Sindh, the Arabs subjugated the peace-loving and non-violent people of Sindh kept them under their domination. Sindhis were also extremely humiliated. As a result of this humiliation, the Sindhis had to change their originality.
- After the conquest of Sindh, the Arabs took away all the wealth of Sindh. Thus, the Arabs were in no 'way different from the robbers.
- After the conquest of Sindh, the Arabs took away thousands of male and female slaves to their country. The female slaves, they used as slave girls so as to satisfy their sexual lust for which they are notorious.
- Some Arabs, who were in fact against the Holy Prophet and his mission, posed themselves as the champions of the new religion. They started torturing the immediate kith and kins of the Prophet. These relatives of the Prophet were the true successors of the spiritualism that Islam had in its fold. So, in utter violation of the spirit of Islam, these Arabs started practicing tribal traditions, customs and way of life. To all of it they started calling as "Shariat-e-Mohammed".
Here it is sufficient to say that the Arab expeditions and conquest and imperialism had nothing to do with religion of Islam. Their misdeeds only abused the name of Islam. The spread of Islam in Sindhi was never due to Arab rulers who were not even true Muslims themselves. It was actually due to the teachings of God moving moralists, whether Muslims or Sufis of other religions, which Muslim Soofis and Saints or followers of previous religions, who had acquired spiritual knowledge from time to time, from the teachings of their ancestors. On the contrary, true teachings of Islam were hindered by Arab rulers or their agents or by the paid Mullahs appointed by them. The ultimate result was that, after such evil doings of Arab Imperialists, Sindhis rebelled against them and freed themselves from their yoke and established their own rule.
- The Arabs conquered Sindh, looted and took the riches, treasures, and men and women to labor in their country. On the other hand they destroyed Sindhi's self-respect and bravery and pure faith, and for the sake of strengthening the Arab Imperialism, made it compulsory to follow the Arab traditions and customs, and to adopt names and teachings of Arab culture. The Arabs also imposed 'jazia" which means "Slave Tax", although they tried to cloak it under the garb of the so-called religion. Sindh was passing through the tribal age that was ruled by their Chiefs, who had their vested interests and were often worshippers of the rising sun. Therefore several of them welcomed with beat of drums and flutes the Arab Imperialists and to please them offered their daughters as present. Since the Arabs were sex thirsty so they were very pleased on getting those beautiful girls. At the present time, conditions are almost the same. Comrade Ghulam Muhammad Lighari, knew the habits of certain people. He delivered a speech, in that he pointed out. "Thanks that General Ayub Khan was fond of partridge shooting and not the habit of some other pathans, but God forbidding, if he had that habit, you would see that many Pirs or Waderas (priests and Feudal lords) would stand in line naked before him to fulfil his pleasure". On account of that speech, Lighari got nine months imprisonment.
- After conquering Sindh, Arabs, put down Sindhis to such a low level of social behavior by force of their swords, gave them wrong religious ideas, so that whoever nonsense and falsehood which came from Arabia, was considered sacred and the Arab people were taken as the chosen people of God. These degenerated Sindhis with vested interests began to call themselves of the Arab origin. They thought it to be a great honor. Sometimes, people who were originally from Rajput origin started calling themselves as coming from the Arab race. They began writing their genealogies based on Arab breed. They based their folklore and history in such a way, that the Sammas called themselves descendent of Abu Lahab, (the uncle of the Prophet of Islam), and the Soomras began to call themselves "ALVI SADAT"; the Kalhoras called themselves Abbassides, descendants of Abbas, uncle of prophet of Islam, and the Baluchis declared themselves as descendants of Hamza, another uncle of Prophet Mohammed, who was martyred in the Battle of Ohad. Several persons of Sindh started calling themselves Syeds, Qureshis, Siddiqis, etc. All this became an opportunistic fashion so as to be close and on the side of the Arab imperialist rulers. It seemed that before the Arab invasion, there hardly lived any clan or tribe in Sindh. In this way the Arabs colonized Sindh. It was the height of servility and self-Degradation. The world knows that most of the Arabs were uncivilized and of nomadic tribes most of them were uncultured, crude and cruel. Their choice food used to be the meat of camel and frogs, and they used to drink camel milk and most of their habits were inherited from uncivilized people. Undoubtedly, they were a fighting people, but that was also the habit of savages as well as of animals. Human evolution and progress lay in a peaceful and civilized way of life. It was due to the influence of Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his progeny) that those people were somewhat trained, united and disciplined and on account of which they succeeded in conquering the lands of the neighboring countries. We Sindhis have had our own proven five thousand years of ancient civilization. How could we forget our own history and follow in the footsteps of the uncivilized people. Simply because they had forcibly subjugated us. But when some people become servile, they follow their conquers slavishly. This innovation which the Sindhis adopted following in the footsteps of the Arabs, continued to the arrival of the Mughals. They considered it a pride and privilege to speak in Persian and, under the British rule, they also began speaking English. They spoke English even in their homes. Now, under the present Imperialism of the Punjabis, the fake ideology of Muslims being a nation or Pakistan as one nation is invented. In following them, Sindhis of higher class whether Pirs, bureaucrats, Waderas and mullahs speak Urdu. They do it to please their masters. The reason for all this inferiority complex is that they were influenced by selfish-ness and cowardice to become an easy prey of the Punjabi masters.
- After conquering Sindh, the Arabs humiliated the Sindhis so much so that the Sindhis lost their national pride. Every thing coming from Arabia was considered sacred. The love of their land unfortunately decreased and they started calling them the sons of tile Arabs. Similarly Arabic language was considered a heavenly language. The major towns of the Arabs, Mecca and Madina, were considered sacred and holy. By visiting those places, the Sindhis were to get salvation from wrong interpretation, which the conquerors had brought and taught, to them. They were so infatuated that they started singing hymns and praying to God to let them die in the Arab cities or to enable them to sweep the streets of Mecca and Madina. Such was the bad influence of the Arab conquerors that they forgot even the names of their ancestors and started calling themselves of Arab caste and kept Arabic names. Every Arab custom or tradition was considered a part of Islam. On the other hand, every custom and tradition of Sindhi origin was considered UN-Islamic and unfit. Instead of love of Sindh and Sindhi nation, they prided in calling themselves Muslims and showing love for the foreign country of Arabia.
- It is a universal practice of centuries that people love their traditions. For meeting or trade or pleasure, they used to gather at a chosen or central place in an annual gathering and perform rites or rituals at such meeting places. In this way they acquired national unity by national consciousness and homogeneity. In Sindh also there were several such places like Yea'ic Dharm, Buddha Dharam and places of some Saints where annual functions were held. But the Arabs cleverly diverted their attention towards their own places in Arabia.
- Latest scientific research has it that the Sang-Aswad (Black stone) was actually a Maturate, which fell from the clouds in a passing storm, and Israel in organizing the Arab tribes, kept as a center of gathering and worship.
- When Yazeed Bin Muavia's 30,000 army attacked Madina and Mecca, this stone was broken into four parts.
- During the Abbassi period, Karamata rose in revolt against the cruelties of the Arabs, captured Mecca and took away this stone. So Hajj was stopped for 12 years. After Karamta's death, the Abbassi Caliph paid several lacs (millions) of DINAR (currency) and got back this stone.
- For further details consult the book "Fatah-ul-Buldan".
- Consult "Chachnama" and "Fatah-ul-Buldan"
- Consider "Blazali" for further details.
- Consult "Chachnama" for further details.
- From the Jewish Turah (OLD TESTAMENT) and the Christian Bible (NEW TESTAMENT), we learn that it was not Ismail but Ishaq, Ibrahim's second son, who was taken for sacrifice and that Ibrahim's first wife was his step-sister (same father but different mother). As it was a custom among the Jews of the tribe of Israel in those days that people married stepsister or stepbrother. These historical facts are kept hidden from the common (uninformed) people. Lacs of animals are sacrificed and most of them rot and are thrown away by the Health Administration.
- For further information, consult the book entitled "Aryan Art" by Ganga Ram and Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.
- It may be motioned in passing that in 1929/30 the late Mir Ali Nawaz Khan Talpur had sent a petition to the then viceroy to free this estate of Sindh, Khairpur from remaining under the Bombay Presidency.